This information was produced by the staff of the Belin-Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development (B-BC) at the University of Iowa ( The resources and information listed here are for informational purposes; there is no direct or implied endorsement by the B-BC. Services provided by the B-BC include programs for academically talented K-12 and college students, professional development for teachers, the Assessment and Counseling Clinic, the Acceleration Institute (, and graduate programs and research in gifted education.

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Annotated Bibliography

Articles are listed in descending order by year (most recent first), and then by first author's last name.

General Giftedness

Hafenstein, N. L., Boley, V., & Lin, J. (2022). State policy and funding in gifted research. Gifted Child Today, 45(4), 226–234.

Policy and funding influence equitable education for students who are gifted. The concept of equity is examined through variations in policy and in funding at the state, district, and local levels. Challenges and barriers to equity in policy and funding include policy structures, where policy provides guidance without accountability measures, or where policy does include systemic evaluation for improvement. Examples have been drawn from four different states in different areas of the United States and multiple examples from various districts are presented. State level mandates for identification of and service to gifted learners are presented, including those following the Exceptional Children’s Education Act and those not. Variations in definitions of gifted are articulated. District level policies, demonstrating local control, illustrate ranges of service and guidance. Examples of the broad range of funding available for gifted programming are articulated and include base funding as well as formulaic metrics. Adequate resources for equitable gifted education are explored by considering expenditures and allocations of funding, frequently dependent on locale, school size, and economic resources. A call for action suggests practices to improve equity in gifted education include building and implementing strong advocacy skills, pursuing fiscal support for services for gifted learners, and committing to a professional developed workforce through formal and informal professional learning for educators and policymakers. Educator attitudes and beliefs and public perceptions that may perpetuate myths are examined in relation to equitable services for gifted students.

Bannister-Tyrrell, M., Mavropoulou, S., Jones, M., Bailey, J., Odonnell-Ostini, A., & Dorji, R. (2018). Initial Teacher Preparation for Teaching Students with Exceptionalities: Pre-service Teachers Knowledge and Perceived Competence. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 43(6), 19-34. doi:10.14221/ajte.2018v43n6.2  

This research study surveyed 100 undergraduate teacher education students in a regional university in Australia, explored self-reported perceptions of their knowledge about students with exceptional needs, and their competence to be effective educators of these students in an inclusive classroom. Additionally, we included a measure of general attitude toward teaching in an inclusive classroom. What made this exploratory study atypical was broadening the concept of 'exceptionality' to the inclusion of items related to students with physical and cognitive challenges, superior academic gifts and those deemed to be twice exceptional. The results were unexpected in that teachers' age, parental status and exposure to units of study in special and inclusive education did not differentiate their knowledge, perceived competence, or general attitude.  

Hertberg-Davis, H. (2009). Myth 7: Differentiation in the Regular Classroom Is Equivalent to Gifted Programs and Is Sufficient. Gifted Child Quarterly, 53(4), 251-253. doi:10.1177/0016986209346927  

In many ways, meeting the needs of gifted students through differentiation of curriculum and instruction within the regular classroom seems a perfect solution to the issues that have plagued gifted education for many years and remain largely unresolved. So why "is" it a myth that differentiated instruction in the regular classroom is an appropriate substitute for gifted programs? Although differentiation and state standards can peacefully coexist in a classroom, teachers often find it difficult to reconcile attending to student differences with a broader high-stakes testing culture that seems to mandate the opposite. Recent research indicates that the high-stakes testing associated with "No Child Left Behind" has rendered the regular classroom even less hospitable to gifted learners than it was previously, causing teachers to resort to drill-and-kill techniques over more student-centered approaches. Differentiation of instruction both within the regular classroom and within homogeneous settings is critical to addressing the needs of all high-ability learners, including twice-exceptional students, underachievers, students from underserved populations, and highly gifted students. But, like any approach to educating gifted students, it functions best as a critical component within a spectrum of services provided for high-ability learners.  

Bain, S. K., Bliss, S. L., Choate, S. M., & Brown, K. S. (2007). Serving children who are gifted: Perceptions of undergraduates planning to become teachers. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 30(4), 450-478.

Seeking information about preconceived notions of the educational needs of children who are gifted, we asked 285 undergraduates in prerequisite classes for teacher education to complete questionnaires. Topics addressed included the need for special services for children who are gifted, perceptions of forms of service delivery in elementary schools, and egalitarian versus elitist issues in gifted education. Preferences among our respondents fell in favor of services carried out in general classroom settings at elementary schools, reflecting egalitarian attitudes. We found misconceptions, compared to empirical evidence, for notions about tutoring practices and academic acceleration. In their response rates to items, undergraduates previously served as gifted differed only occasionally from those not served as gifted. We discuss implications of our findings in terms of the need for proponents of gifted programs to address some misconceptions that appear to be related to school reform and appropriate services for children who are gifted.

Rogers, K. B. (2007). Lessons learned about educating the gifted and talented: A synthesis of the research on educational practice. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51(4), 382-396.

This article discusses five reconsiderations (lessons) the research on the education of the gifted and talented suggests. Although several of the considerations derive from traditional practices in the field, some reconsideration is warranted because of more currently researched differences in how the gifted learner intellectually functions. It is argued that thinking of the gifted learner as idiosyncratic, not necessarily one of many classified as "the gifted," requires a reconceptualization of how to appropriately and fully serve this unique learner. The research synthesized here covers the period from 1861 to present and represents the entire body of published research studies and representative literature (theory, program descriptions, and persuasive essays). Implications for service development and implementation are also discussed.

Swiatek, M. A., & Lupkowski-Shoplik, A. (2003). Elementary and middle school student participation in gifted programs: Are gifted students underserved? Gifted Child Quarterly, 47(2), 118-130.

Most researchers agree that special educational programming is advisable for academically gifted students, although the best type of programming is a matter of controversy. Evidence suggests that effective programs combine ability grouping with curricular modification, but little research has addressed the extent to which high-ability students receive special services in their schools. Here, third through sixth graders scoring at or above the 95th percentile on standardized achievement tests reported on their educational experiences. The most common experience was the pull-out program, but many students stated that they were involved in no special programming. Separate analyses for mathematics instruction yielded similar results. Gender, grade level, type of school (public vs. private/parochial), and above-level EXPLORE scores explained little of the variance in special accommodations. The lack of services reported by many participants is particularly surprising given that members of the sample were both highly able and highly motivated.

Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (2000). States of excellence. American Psychologist, 55(1), 137-150.

Research from the individual-differences tradition pertinent to the optimal development of exceptional talent is reviewed, using the theory of work adjustment (TWA) to organize findings. The authors show how TWA concepts and psychometric methods, when used together, can facilitate positive development among talented youth by aligning learning opportunities with salient aspects of each student's individuality. Longitudinal research and more general theoretical models of (adult) academic and intellectual development support this approach. This analysis also uncovers common threads running through several positive psychological concepts (e.g., effectance motivation, flow, and peak experiences). The authors conclude by underscoring some important ideals from counseling psychology for fostering intellectual development and psychological well-being. These include conducting a multifaceted assessment, focusing on strength, helping people make choices, and providing a developmental context for bridging educational and industrial psychology to facilitate positive psychological growth throughout the life span.

Juntune, J. E. (1999). Blending a middle school magnet program for gifted students with a regular middle school program. NASSP Bulletin, 83(609), 96-102.

A gifted program can be part of a regular school program without sacrificing excellence for the gifted students or lessening the quality of the regular school program. A gifted program that is planned for widespread effect can benefit all the students in a school, not just the identified gifted students.

Gubbins, J. E., & Siegle, D. L. (Ed.) (1991-1997). The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) Newsletter. Storrs, CT: National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented.

These 15 newsletters from the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) contain the following articles: (1) "National Research Needs Assessment Process" (Brian D. Reid); (2) "NRC/GT: Update of Year 2 Activities" (E. Jean Gubbins); (3) "Parents: Their Impact on Gifted Adolescents" (Julie L. Sherman); (4) "Cluster Grouping Fact Sheet: How To Provide Full-Time Services for Gifted Students on Existing Budgets" (Susan Winebrenner and Barbara Devlin); (5) "But You're a Man!!!' Exploring the Role of Identification in Role Model and/or Mentor Relationships" (Jonathan Plucker); (6) "Thinking Skills in the Regular Classroom" (Deborah E. Burns);(7) "Dynamic Assessment and Its Use with High Ability Students" (Robert J. Kirschenbaum); (8) "When 'Differentiated' Becomes Disconnected from Curriculum" (E. Jean Gubbins); (9) "Changing the Way We Perceive 'Creativity'" (Jonathan A. Plucker); (10) "Examining a Tool for Assessing Multiple Intelligences" (Cheryll M. Adams and Carolyn M. Callahan); (11) "Gender Differences between Student and Teacher Perceptions of Ability and Effort" (Del Siegle and Sally M. Reis); (12) "Motivating Our Students: The Strong Force of Curriculum Compacting" (Heather Allenback); (13) "Extending the Pedagogy of Gifted Education to All Students" (Sally M. Reis, Marcia Gentry, and Sunghee Park); (14) "Valuing, Identifying, Cultivating, and Rewarding Talents of Students from Special Populations" (David St. Jean); and (15) "A Parent's Guide to Helping Children: Using Bibliotherapy at Home" (Mary Rizza).

Stanley, J. C. (1997). Varieties of intellectual talent. Journal of Creative Behavior, 31(2), 93-119.

Discusses the identification of intellectually talented youth and, to some extent, their educational facilitation. Although the "abilities" view of talent is emphasized, more qualitative approaches such as those of B. S. Bloom, K. A. Ericsson, H. Gardner, D. K. Simonton, and R. J. Sternberg receive attention. Life outcomes of mathematically and/or verbally precocious youth identified across the nation by talent searches, including the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) emanating since 1971 from Johns Hopkins University (J. C. Stanley et al.) which is described here, may help clarify relationships between intellectual precocity, creativity, and achievement.

Cognard, A. M. (1996). The case for weighting grades and waiving classes for gifted and talented high school students (Report). Storrs, CT: National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented.

This monograph discusses two studies that investigated weighting grades and waiving classes for gifted students. Data were gathered from 19 interviews with teachers, counselors and administrators in four high schools, questionnaires filled out by 189 high school administrators, 80 school policies on weighting grades and 19 policies on waiving classes, and attitudes of 15 college admission directors. Research results indicated that the majority of schools weighted some classes, although there is no consistency among schools as to which classes or grades are weighted. However, all schools which weighted grades had one thing in common: a commitment to defining excellence and to giving credence to what excellence means to them through the process of weighting grades. Respondents stated a correlation between their decision to weight grades and their interest in reinforcing able students to take demanding courses. The study on waiving classes also showed a lack of national consistency on how classes are waived. One constant did occur: no class is waived unless students show mastery of materials. When students are allowed to skip/waive lower-level classes, such classes usually generate no credit and students are often required to take more advanced classes in the same academic discipline.

Passow, H. A. (1989). Needed research and development in educating high ability children: An editorial. Roeper Review, 11(4), 223-229.

Suggests two areas for research and development in educating high-ability children. They include (1) what kinds of education and socialization opportunities are needed to transform potential into performance, and (2) how to identify and nurture giftedness in "disadvantaged" populations. Other topics for research include curriculum issues, identifying the gifted, components of general education, acceleration and enrichment, affective needs, underachievement, and equity and excellence.

Dettmer, P. (1985). Attitudes of school role groups toward learning needs of gifted students. Roeper Review, 7(4), 253-257.

Professionals responsible for gifted programs are concerned that attitudes and information brought by school personnel to IEP conferences and other planning sessions for gifted students are not favorable toward unique characteristics and needs of those students. The result is not only a waste of school district resources, but a barrier to the support which gifted students need to realize their full potential. A study was conducted to assess the attitudes of four school role groups - regular classroom teachers, teachers of the gifted, building principals, and school psychologists. The greatest reported differences were found between regular classroom teachers and teachers of the gifted.

Arizona State University, Dept. of Special Education (1983). Chronicle of Academic and Artistic Precocity, 2(1-6).

This document combines all 1983 issues of a newsletter that focused on issues of giftedness and talent. Among the major articles are discussions of the talent search conducted at five universities across the country; personal counseling approaches; the transition from high school to college; comparisons among Japanese, Soviet, and U.S. schools; Advanced Placement Program credits; counseling needs of gifted females; study suggestions; challenges of serving mathematically able girls; computer contributions to gifted education; gifted preschoolers; the international baccalaureate program; science and the young gifted child; advantages of acceleration; a college for high school age students; use of standardized tests in identifying gifted children; and suggestions for artistically precocious students. Brief biographical sketches of Robert Heinlein, Jon von Neumann, Flannery O'Connor, Thomas Paine, and Marie Curie are included.

Stark, E. W., & Stanley, J. C. (Eds.) (1978). Bright youths dispel persistent myths about intellectual talent: Panel discussion with parents and educators. Gifted Child Quarterly, 22(2), 220-234.

Reports on a panel discussion held in 1975 as part of the Terman Memorial Symposium on Intellectual Talent at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. The panel consisted of 16 mathematically gifted young people (12 boys and 4 girls) aged 12-20 yrs, with one 6-yr-old boy. They varied greatly in background and abilities and interests other than in mathematics. In a 2-hr session they responded to questions from the audience, providing insights as to their feelings about mathematics, educational acceleration and its effect on their social adjustment, teacher reactions to mathematically precocious pupils, and relations with their parents. A follow-up of the panelists 2 yrs later is appended to the main discussion.

Gallagher, J. J. (1966). Research Summary on Gifted Child Education. IL: Department of Program Development for Gifted Children, Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Research is summarized and analyzed in this revision of the author's 1960 "Analysis of Research on the Education of Gifted Children," which was used as a guide in the construction and implementation of the Illinois Plan for Program Development for Gifted Children. Information is provided on identification and definition and on characteristics of gifted children. Also discussed are the highly creative child and the underachieving gifted child (attention is given to talent from culturally different groups). Consideration of intervention includes research design and stresses three areas of intervention: the administrative, instructional, and adjunctive. Needed personnel and research development programs in Illinois are treated. Additional research is cited. The bibliography contains over 200 items, dated from approximately 1925 through 1966, and the reference list annotates 32 items.

Pressey, S. (1955). Concerning the nature and nurture of genius. Science, 31, 123-129.

Illustrations from athletics and music introduce the hypothesis "that a practicing genius is produced by giving a precocious able youngster early encouragement, intensive instruction, continuing opportunity as he advances, a congruent stimulating social life, and cumulative success experiences." Proposals are made for meeting these conditions in schools and colleges. 24 references.