This information was produced by the staff of the Belin-Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development (B-BC) at the University of Iowa ( The resources and information listed here are for informational purposes; there is no direct or implied endorsement by the B-BC. Services provided by the B-BC include programs for academically talented K-12 and college students, professional development for teachers, the Assessment and Counseling Clinic, the Acceleration Institute (, and graduate programs and research in gifted education.

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Annotated Bibliography

Articles are listed in descending order by year (most recent first), and then by first author's last name.

International Perspectives

Alarfaj, A., & Al-Omair, R. A. L. (2020). The whole grade acceleration policy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the state of Massachusetts, USA–An analytical comparative study. International Education Studies, 13(8), 55–67.

The research aims, through a comparative analytical study, to unveil whether there is an actual whole-grade acceleration policy in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) if compared with that applied at Massachusetts, USA. Adopting such a policy secures the right of the gifted student to grow academically in proportion with his peculiar potentials. The research adopts the comparative analytical method (qualitative) using two tools: document analysis and semi-structured interview. The sample of the study comprised two education supervisors in charge of acceleration system in the department of the gifted in KSA and school principals applying the system in the state of Massachusetts. The foremost result, which the study came up to, was that the Saudi educational system has a comprehensive written acceleration policy based on scientific frameworks, while Massachusetts doesn’t have a specific document for applying a comprehensive acceleration policy. The research concluded with some recommendations among which are: The comprehensive acceleration policy in KSA still needs to develop, especially in the following areas: Classes and study levels on which the acceleration system and guidance services are applied, and The need to review acceleration procedures as they are among the obstacles that hinder an active application of the policy at the present time.

Arens, A. K., & Watermann, R. (2015). How an early transition to high-ability secondary schools affects students' academic self-concept: Contrast effects, assimilation effects, and differential ability. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 64–71.

This study examined the operation of contrast and assimilation effects, and the development of academic self-concept of students in the education system of the German federal state Berlin. One group of students experienced an early transition to high-ability secondary schools while the other group experienced the regular transition after sixth grade. The early transition was found to bear an assimilation effect on academic self-concept which was stronger than the contrast effect immediately after early transition but weaker at the end of the first school year after early transition. The early transition did not affect the normative stability of academic self-concept between two measurement points. Students with an early transition displayed higher levels of academic self-concept at both measurement points but a more substantial decline in academic self-concept than students experiencing regular transition. The findings are discussed in the context of the debate on tracking and acceleration practices in education systems.

Makel, M. C., Wai, J., Putallaz, M., & Malone, P. S. (2015). The academic gap: An international comparison of the time allocation of academically talented students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 59, 177-189. 

The academic gap: An international comparison of the time allocation of academically talented students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 59, 177-189.

Despite growing concern about the need to develop talent across the globe, relatively little empirical research has examined how students develop their academic talents. Toward this end, the current study explored how academically talented students from the United States and India spend their time both in and out of school. Indian students reported spending roughly 11 more hours on academics than their U.S. peers during the weekend in both STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) and non-STEM topics. U.S. students reported spending about 5.4 more hours than their Indian peers on non-STEM academics during the week, leaving an approximately 7-hour-a-week academic gap between U.S. and Indian students. Additionally, U.S. students reported using electronics over 14 hours per week more than their Indian peers. Indian students also reported having control over a greater proportion of their time during the week than U.S. students did. Generally, there were far more cross-cultural differences than gender differences. These results inform discussions on how academically talented students develop within educational systems as well as what each culture supports in and out of school.

Hoogeveen, L. (2012). Social-emotional characteristics of gifted accelerated and non-accelerated students in the Netherlands. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 585-605.

In this study, social-emotional characteristics of accelerated gifted students in the Netherlands were examined in relation to personal and environmental factors.

Sumida, M. (2010). Identifying Twice‐Exceptional Children and Three Gifted Styles in the Japanese Primary Science Classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 32(15), 2097-2111. doi:10.1080/09500690903402018  

Children with mild developmental disorders sometimes show giftedness. In this study, an original checklist was developed to identify gifted characteristics specific to science learning among twice-exceptional primary school children in Japan. The checklist consisted of 60 items on Attitudes, Thinking, Skills, and Knowledge/Understanding. A total of 86 children from eight primary schools in an urban area in Japan, 50% of whom had Learning Disabilities (LD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and/or High-functioning Autism (HA), were observed using the checklist. Factor analysis revealed three factors. A cluster analysis with the subscale points of each factor identified three "gifted styles" in science. These were: (1) Spontaneous Style; (2) Expert Style; and (3) Solid Style. LD/ADHD/HA children characteristically displayed a Spontaneous Style while the non-LD/ADHD/HA children were characterized by the Solid Style. In both subject groups, the number of Expert Style children was the lowest with no significant difference in their numbers. Based on the results of this research, this paper discusses the implications of the findings for teaching science to twice-exceptional children and argues the benefits of inclusive science education for children with and without mild developmental disorders. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)  

Heinbokel, A. (2009) Handbuch Akzeleration - Was Hochbegabten nützt. Germany: Lit Verlag.

This book discusses academic acceleration and ways to apply it in schools. The full book is available only in German.

Hoogeveen, L., van Hell, J. G., & Verhoeven, L. (2009). Self-concept and social status of accelerated and nonaccelerated students in the first 2 years of secondary school in the Netherlands. Gifted Child Quarterly, 53(1), 50-67. doi: 10.1177/0016986208326556

This study examined the self-concept and social status of accelerated and nonaccelerated students in their first two years of secondary school in the Netherlands. Results of the study, and implications for the education of accelerated students, are discussed.

Kleinbok, O., & Vidergor, H. (2009). Grade skipping: A retrospective case study on academic and social implications. Gifted and Talented International, 24(2), 21-38.

Study authors interviewed five students who had skipped a grade in Israel. The students' parents were also interviewed. Participants discussed the difficulties, reasons for, consequences of, and general experience of acceleration. Students and parents were satisfied with the decision to accelerate and recommend acceleration at the beginning of elementary or middle school, when all of a student's peers are starting over socially as well.

Jiménez, J. E., Artiles, C., Ramírez, G., & Alvarez, J. (2006). Effectiveness of acceleration in high ability children in the Canary Islands. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 29(1), 51-64.

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of acceleration in high ability students in the Canary Islands (Spain). In particular, our aim was to investigate whether acceleration had positive effects on a sample of 152 gifted students who had been skipped a grade. These students were distributed across all educational levels, i.e., Primary, Secondary, and High School or further education, and attended both public and private schools in the Canary Islands. A questionnaire was administered to parents, students, and teachers in which they were asked to evaluate the effects of acceleration on the students. Based on these results, we analyzed 1) if the decision of skipping a grade was considered the best, 2) if the educational resources provided were appropriate for each student's special educational needs, 3) if acceleration had a positive impact on the student's emotional and motivational adaptation to the group, and 4) if high ability students' specific characteristics continued to be perceived the same after being skipped a grade. In addition, we analyzed the effects of grade skipping on high ability students' achievement through their school qualifications, and whether they had received any individual curricular adaptation at the time.

Jin, S.-U., & Moon, S. M. (2006). A study of well-being and school satisfaction among academically talented students attending a science high school in Korea. Gifted Child Quarterly, 50(2), 169-184.

The purpose of this study was to examine whether academically talented adolescents attending a residential science high school in Korea had different levels of psychological well-being or school life satisfaction than their high-ability peers in regular high schools. Overall, the study suggested that the residential science high school was meeting the educational needs of these talented Korean students, at least better than traditional high schools. Implications of the study for research and practice are discussed.

Tischler, K. (2006). Comparative analysis of specialized high schools in the USA and in Austria. Gifted and Talented International, 21(2), 71-82.

This paper reports on a cross-cultural study investigating the advantages and disadvantages of specialized high schools in the USA and in Austria from the perspective of teachers, students, and parent representatives. This article summarizes some characteristics, pros and cons, and recommendations related to specialized schools. The purpose is to understand how best to meet the educational needs of gifted students.

Cheng, H.Y. & Hui, S. K. F. (2005). Competencies and characteristics for teaching gifted students: A comparative study of Beijing and Hong Kong teachers. Gifted Child Quarterly, 55(2), 139-148-181. doi: 10.1177/0016986210397832

This study examines the competencies and characteristics of in-service teachers who teach gifted students. A total of 511 teachers participated in the study, 334 of whom were from Beijing and 177 were from Hong Kong. This study analyzed the reasons why teachers in each city would have different ratings of their competencies and characteristics.

Forster, J. (2005). Policy and practice: A twenty year retrospective on gifted education in the Australian state of New South Wales. Gifted Education International, 19(2), 182-196.

If schools are looking to make opportunities real for gifted and talented students, implementation of policy needs to be prioritized and made routine on a system-wide and school-wide basis. This paper analyzes implementation initiatives as they have occurred over the span of twenty years. It also considers the correspondence of policy recommendations with actual school provisions.

Hoogeveen, L., van Hell, J. G., & Verhoeven, L. (2005). Teacher attitudes toward academic acceleration and accelerated students in the Netherlands. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 29(1), 30-59.

In a survey study, we investigated teacher attitudes toward acceleration and accelerated students in the Netherlands. Teachers (N=334) from 31 secondary schools gave their opinion about gifted education and acceleration, and evaluated statements about accelerated students. Most teachers considered a special approach for gifted students advisable and acceleration a useful intervention. Teachers' opinions about accelerated students' social competence, school motivation and achievement, emotional problems, and isolation were qualified by the quantity and quality of prior experience with acceleration students and by their opinion on acceleration in gifted education. In a subsequent intervention study, we examined whether specific information on acceleration and giftedness changes teachers' attitudes toward accelerated students. Teachers who attended the information meeting and received written information expressed more positive opinions about accelerated students' social competence and school achievement and motivation, and less negative opinions about emotional problems after intervention. Implications for gifted education are discussed.

McCann, M. (2005). Our greatest natural resource: Gifted education in Australia. Gifted Education International, 19(2), 90-106.

This paper argues that a more sustained focus on educating teachers, administrators, and those in coordination or other leadership roles in gifted education is essential. It examines the history of gifted education in Australia and the current issues and practices.

Vialle, W., & Tischler, K. (2005). Teachers of the gifted: A comparison of students' perspectives in Australia, Austria, and the United States. Gifted Education International, 19(2), 173-181.

What characteristics of teachers are most appreciated by their gifted students? The current study sought the views of gifted adolescents through the administration of a questionnaire, the Preferred Instructor Characteristics Scale. The scale required students to select between a personal characteristic and an intellectual characteristic on each item in order to determine which group of characteristics was more highly valued. Three additional open-ended questions were included in the questionnaire to elicit students' views about the qualities that are evident in effective teachers. The questionnaire was administered to secondary students in academically selective schools in Australia (n=387), Austria (n=142) and the United States (n=328). All three cohorts produced similar results with the means indicating a strong preference for personal characteristics over intellectual characteristics of teachers. Grade and gender were also noted. The open-ended questions revealed that the most effective teachers, according to the gifted student respondents, are those who have a blend of favorable personal and intellectual skills along with a range of teaching approaches.

Heinbokel, A. (2004). Überspringen von Klassen. In E. Schumacher (Ed.), Übergänge in Bildung und Ausbildung, Klinkhardt-Verlag (pp. 233-251). Language: German

In 1996, the laws concerning grade skipping in Lower Saxony were changed. Since then teachers must consider grade skipping if a pupil has a B average or better. There had also been positive changes in the attitude towards gifted children in general and grade skipping. A follow-up of the research of 1989/90 (see above Heinbokel 1996) was carried out to understand the influence of the change in the law and attitudes on grade skipping. As a result, Lower Saxony is the only German state (now including the east) which has figures for 20 years. Grade skipping increased from 311 (1980s) to 1907 (1990s) cases. In primary school there were still more boys, but in secondary school there were significantly more girls. The schools noted more pupils with problems after grade skipping up to a point where they had to repeat a year (this had not happened in the 90s). One possible reason: there had been no teacher training how to recognize suitable candidates and how to handle grade skipping. There were also more children who had skipped more than one year.

Rawlins, P. (2004). Students' perceptions of their experiences from within acceleration programs in mathematics. Australian Senior Mathematics Journal, 18(1), 42-51.

No abstract available.

Wallace, B., & Donnelly, V. (2004). A curriculum of opportunity: Developing potential into performance. Gifted Education International, 19(1), 41-66.

This paper summarizes the guidance document produced by ACCAC (Qualifications, Curriculum and Assessment Authority for Wales). The document provides guidance to schools on meeting the needs of more able pupils. The main points are outlined below, but the actual document abounds with case studies of good practice. The document was compiled by a Working Party representative of schools and advisers in conjunction with Belle Wallace and Johanna Raffan (NACE: National Association of Able Children in Education).

Yang, W. (2004). Education of gifted and talented children: What's going on in China. Gifted Education International, 18(3), 313-325.

Currently in China there are about 240 million children aged 14 or under; therefore, there should be approximately 7 million gifted and talented children in China according to Chinese definition and identification of giftedness. Special education for such huge numbers of gifted children is challenging and significant. This paper traces the history of gifted education in China and discusses current education in general. Specifically, the paper describes the Chinese conceptions of gifted and talented children, identification procedures, current gifted programs, and existing problems. The future of Chinese gifted education is also discussed.

Yang, W., & Reis, S. M. (2004). The use of curriculum compacting and the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in China. Gifted Education International, 19(1), 67-75.

The Schoolwide Enrichment Model: A How-to Guide for Educational Excellence (SEM) was translated and published in China in 2000. The ideas proposed in this book have caused discussions to begin within the Chinese educational reform movement, because of the ideas offered by the American experiences of education and creative/productive giftedness. This article discusses ideas about educational reform before and after the publication of the SEM, such as the experimental use of curriculum compacting and enrichment replacement activities in China. It further describes and discusses a sample application of the Renzulli and Reis approach suggested in the SEM that might work in China and other international settings.

Gross, M. U. M. (2003). All gifts are equal but some gifts are more equal than others. Understanding Our Gifted, 15(2), 8-12.

Gross presents vignettes of exceptionally gifted and profoundly gifted Australian students. The profiled students are talented musically, athletically, and academically. Gross discusses how schools and society are willing to support and celebrate the development of the students' musical and athletic talents through mentorships, grouping with similar-ability peers, and acceleration, among other means of support. There is little resistance to letting a musically- or athletically-talented student perform with older peers or develop talents in excess of same-age peers. The development of the students’ intellectual talents is not supported through these same means (acceleration, ability grouping, mentorships, sustained and rigorous practice, pride in achievement, and opportunity for comparison) and is often ignored. Claims are often made that academic acceleration will harm a student’s social or emotional health, but such claims are not levied against musical or athletic acceleration. Gross suggests that society values the development of talents that bring an immediate benefit or practical advantage (such as entertainment or positive attention to the school district). Because intellectual talents are not valued in the same way, students are not allowed to accelerate academically.

Jeon, K.-W., Lee, S.-D., & Lee, K.-H. (2003). A qualitative research on early entrance to the first grade: Social, emotional, and academic maladjustment. Gifted Education International, 17(3), 280-286.

The purpose of this study is to describe and investigate the social, emotional, and academic maladjustment for those early entrants to the first grade educational system in Korea who drop out early. Exploratory and in-depth interviews were conducted to ascertain the maladjustment experience for three 5-year-old early-entrance drop-outs.

Lin, C., Hu, W., Adey, P., & Shen, J. (2003). The influence of CASE on scientific creativity. Research in Science Education, 33, 143-162.

This paper describes a study of the influence of the Cognitive Acceleration through Science education (CASE) program on the scientific creativity of secondary school students. Results from the study, as well as possible interpretations of these results, are discussed.

Clark, G., & Zimmerman, E. (2002). Tending the special spark: Accelerated and enriched curricula for highly talented art students. Roeper Review, 24(3), 161-68.

This reprint of an article on Israel's proposed residential high school for students gifted in the arts and sciences is preceded by a commentary that highlights the use of alternative methods of assessment for identifying talented students in the arts and the development of a coherent sequence of art skills.

Clark, G., & Zimmerman, E. (2002). Tending the special spark: Accelerated and enriched curricula for highly talented art students. Roeper Review, 24(3), 161-168.

This reprint of an article on Israel's proposed residential high school for students gifted in the arts and sciences is preceded by a commentary that highlights the use of alternative methods of assessment for identifying talented students in the arts and the development of a coherent sequence of art skills.

Heinbokel, A. (2002). Acceleration: Still an option for the gifted. Gifted Education International, 16(2), 170-178.

Reviews research on grade skipping in German primary and grammar schools, including data gathered from interviews with parents of grade skippers and pupils who had decided against grade skipping and from interviews with students who had skipped grades. Although public and professional opinion on grade skipping is quite negative, there are no German studies that support this view. Schools, parents, and grade skippers themselves reported few academic problems; if there were emotional and social problems, it was not clear whether they were actually caused by this form of acceleration, by individual private problems, or by an unsympathetic environment. This is an area that calls for more research. Attempts to increase the number of grade skippers in grammar schools were not successful.

Neber, H., & Heller, K. A. (2002). Evaluation of a summer-school program for highly gifted secondary-school students: The German Pupils Academy. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18(3), 214-228.

The German Pupils Academy is a summer school program for highly gifted secondary-school students. Three types of program evaluation were conducted. Input evaluation confirmed the participants as intellectually gifted students who are intrinsically motivated and interested to attend the courses offered at the summer school. Process evaluation focused on the courses attended by the participants as the most important component of the program. Accordingly, the instructional approaches meet the needs of highly gifted students for self-regulated and discovery oriented learning. The product or impact evaluation was based on a multivariate social-cognitive framework. The findings indicate that the program contributes to promoting the motivational and cognitive prerequisites for transforming giftedness into excellent performances. To some extent, the positive effects on students' self-efficacy and self-regulatory strategies are due to qualities of the learning environments established by the courses.

Grigorenko, E. L. (2001). Russian gifted education in technical disciplines: Tradition and transformation. In K. A. Heller, F. J. Monks, R. J. Sternberg, & R. F. Subotnik (Eds.), International handbook of giftedness and talent, 2nd edition (pp. 735-742). New York: Elsevier.

This resource is a chapter in a handbook of giftedness that brings together scholars from all around the world to discuss issues and practices in gifted education. 

Heinbokel, A. (2001). Acceleration in Germany. Educating Able Children, 5(5), 50-55.

This article investigates the use of acceleration, particularly whole-grade acceleration, as a curricular option for gifted German students. German schools historically have been reluctant to use acceleration, even though grade skipping was allowed twice in all West German states, once in primary school and once in secondary school. Heinbokel discusses the persistence of myths about acceleration and the widespread resistance to it. For example, research conducted by Heinbokel about acceleration practices in the 1980s showed that more than 99% of Lower Saxony schools had no experience with grade skipping, meaning that the schools have no more than two students skipping grades in ten years. However, the author notes, attitudes toward acceleration are changing, and conservative government parties and some teacher associations are becoming more in favor of the practice. As evidence of the changing attitudes, more regions of Germany are willing to allow early entrance to school and grade skipping. Until 1995, students were not forbidden to skip Grade 10. Since 1995, more than 120 students have skipped Grade 10. In Lower Saxony, schools are requested to discuss the possibility of grade skipping for all students who have an average of 2 or better (in the German system, 1 is the best grade, 6 is the worst). It is becoming more acceptable to champion the cause of gifted education in Germany through early entrance, grade skipping, and special classes.

Vialle, W., Ashton, T., Carlon, G., & Rankin, F. (2001). Acceleration: A coat of many colours. Roeper Review, 24(1), 14-19.

This article synthesizes three research projects conducted in New South Wales, Australia, exploring forms of acceleration for gifted students. The first involved early entry for gifted children, the second examined experiences of students who had skipped at least one grade, and the third examined a vertical programming system that allowed acceleration within subjects at an academically selective high school.

Heller, K. A., Mönks, F. J., Sternberg, R. J., & Subotnik, R. F. (Eds.) (2000). International handbook of research and development of giftedness and talent (2nd Ed.). Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd.

Updated edition of the International Handbook for Gifted Education; originally published in 1993.

This international handbook provides a synthesis and critical review of the significant theory and research dealing with all aspects of giftedness. Each article is designed to reflect the state-of-the art from an international perspective, to offer a comprehensive review, and to comprise the forefront of knowledge and thought about the gifted. The 53 chapters are divided into seven parts with the following titles, and prominent themes within each part are indicated in parentheses: (1) "Historical Perspectives and Perennial Issues Related to Giftedness and Talent" (history of giftedness and national/state policies); (2) "Conceptions and Development of Giftedness and Talent" (structural tendencies, models, developmental theories, genetic influence, brain research, thinking processes, longitudinal studies, and prodigies and savants); (3) "Identification of Giftedness and Talent" (alternative "metaphors of mind," methodological problems, visual arts and music, young children, and prediction); (4) "Programs and Practices of Nurturing the Gifted and Talented" (differentiated education, curriculum development, acceleration, enrichment, verbal talents, mathematics, science and technology, leadership, socioemotional development, moral development, creativity, administrative issues, ability grouping, special programs, and evaluation programs); (5) "Other Components of Nurturing Giftedness and Talent" (teachers of the gifted, counseling needs, underachieving gifted, families, disadvantaged and culturally different, gender differences, gifted disabled, mentoring, and community resources); (6) "Examples of Country Efforts, Policies, Programs and Issues" (United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, People's Republic of China, Australia and New Zealand, Africa, and Central and South America); and (7) "Present and Future of Education of the Gifted and Talented" (research and education). Each paper contains references.

Arnove, R. F., & Zimmerman, E. (1999). Dynamic tensions in ability grouping: A comparative perspective and critical analysis. Educational Horizons, 77(3), 120-127.

Compares types of ability grouping (mixed, homogenous, acceleration/retention) used in educational systems in the United States, China, Japan, South Korea, France, Germany, and Quebec and how they reflect cultural patterns and shape educational outcomes. Discusses tensions between the competing demands of excellence and equity.

Gross, M. U. M. (1999). From the "saddest sound" to the D Major chord: The gift of accelerated progression. Presented at the 3rd Biennial Australian International Conference on the Education of Gifted Students, Melbourne, Australia.

Although the academic acceleration of gifted and talented students is probably the most comprehensively studied and evaluated of all educational interventions, many teachers are reluctant to accelerate gifted students for fear they will suffer social or emotional damage. Yet research suggests that "the bird that's tethered to the ground" is at much greater risk of social isolation and emotional maladjustment through inappropriate grade placement with age-peers. This session looks at how gifted students differ from their age-peers in many aspects of their social and emotional development and explains why well-planned programs of acceleration enhance these students' self esteem, their love of learning, their acceptance of themselves and their gifts, and their capacity to form warm and supportive friendships. For many gifted students, acceleration replaces discord with harmony.

Freeman, J. (1998). Educating the very able: Current international research. London: The Stationary Office.

This report provides an overview of international research on "very able" children. It consists of 3 sections: Who Are the Able; What Are They Like; and How to Educate the Able.

Heinbokel, A. (1997). Acceleration through grade skipping in Germany. High Ability Studies, 8(1), 61-77.

This article defends acceleration as one option for gifted students, describes use of acceleration in Germany including early school entrance, individual grade skipping, acceleration in one subject, and acceleration in special classes.

Freeman, J. (1996). Self-reports in research on high ability. High Ability Studies, 7(2), 191-201.

Self-reports are particularly suitable for research with the gifted, who are often self-aware and articulate. By this means, features which could otherwise be missed by standardized tests and observations can add greatly both to the richness of the data and to their validity. However, because of the great variety, and the unexpectedness and complexity of responses, there are problems of collection and analysis, such as distortion by reporter or researcher. Verbal protocol analysis is suggested as one solution. A 14-yr study in Britain using self-reports, along with a battery of standardized tests, compared 70 gifted (aged 5-14 yrs) and 140 nongifted controls. This supplied information, unobtainable by other means, on, for instance, the subjective aspects of academic acceleration, teacher-pupil relationships, the effects of labeling, and intellectual strategies of the gifted. These insights are valuable for care of the gifted and for policy making.

Heinbokel, A. (1996). Überspringen von Klassen. Münster [u.a.]: Lit. Language: German

This is the first book on acceleration (mainly grade skipping) in Germany. The research consists of three parts:

  • A census of all the primary schools, grammar schools and comprehensive schools in Lower Saxony. They were asked how many children had skipped a grade between 1980 and 1990, and if the schools had noticed social-emotional and / or intellectual problems.
  • Questionnaires for parents whose children had skipped a grade (42 girls, 61 boys, plus 9 girls and 11 boys who had not skipped), all from the former West German states.
  • Interviews with children (19 grade skippers, 6 non-grade skippers taken from the parents’ sample) who had skipped a grade in primary school and who were 13 and older at the time of the interviews. Parents and teachers often saw the lack of challenge in primary school but worried about what might happen in adolescence with the older class mates.
East German states were not included because, at the time of the study, Germany had not yet been re-unified. Brief results in English are presented in the articles mentioned here. In 2001 the census in Lower Saxony was repeated for 1990-2001.

Liu, J., & Barnhart, R. (1996). Chinese gifted teenage university programs. The Journal of Special Education, 30, 204-212.

This article reviews the initiation, improvement, and expansion of a teenage university program developed by Chinese educators. Over the past 17 years, hundreds of young people have graduated from the program and most of them became the backbone of research, and development activity in the country. This article presents a brief historical review of the program, methods employed in identification and selection of the gifted, curriculum developed for this group of students, administration of the program and individual development of the students.

Zhao, X. (1996). Recollections of a gifted program in China. Gifted and Talented International, 11(2), 80-83.

A Chinese student, now in her early 20s and studying in the United States, looks back on a gifted program she enrolled in eleven years ago/ After a brief introduction to the origin and nature of the program, she recollects three aspects of her life in the program (academic, social, and emotional) and reaches the conclusion that despite some regrets about the academic life and shortcomings of the social and emotional life, the program was beneficial, and memorable.

Nowicka, R. (1995). Supporting gifted and talented children within the Polish educational system. Gifted and Talented International, 10(1), 36-38.

In recent years Poland has experienced social and educational reform. This article looks at the changes taking place within the Polish educational system pertaining to gifted and talented students, including full-time classes for gifted students, the Creative Schools Association, a coalition of approximately 25 secondary institutions, and the School of Talents in Wroclaw, which offers primary students individualized, accelerated instruction including coursework at a neighboring college.

More information on the Gifted and Talented International publication is available on the World Council for Gifted & Talented Children website.

Prado, T. M., & Schiebel, W. (1995). Grade skipping: Some German experiences. European Journal for High Ability, 6(1), 60-72.

Investigated the frequency, circumstances, and effects of grade skipping in gifted secondary school (n=63) and comprehensive school (n=8) students in Germany. A survey was administered to collect information including how often grade skipping took place in the individual grades; the principal's assessment of measures regarding the requirements; the consequences and appropriateness of grade skipping; and skipped students' characteristics and development of school performance within the first year after their advanced placement. Results indicate that grade skipping in academic secondary and comprehensive schools over the four academic years of the study was a rare occurrence. According to the results of the survey, many instructors are very skeptical about grade skipping, and promote other educational targets rather than high achievement. A wide variety of requirements is expected from the student who is to be accelerated including outstanding ability, willingness to work, high social, emotional, and physical development. The students who had skipped a grade in the previous year, could, as a rule, cope relatively well with work in the higher grade. The necessary support on the part of the school, however, remained limited.

Callow, R. W. (1994). Classroom provision for the able and the exceptionally able. Support for Learning, 9(4), 151-154.

Discusses methods of providing for exceptionally bright (IQ of 160 and above) children in the British schools. Two methods, enrichment and acceleration, work well especially if the enrichment material challenges the child to develop independent thought and action. Acceleration is ideally made to a group 2 or 3 yrs older. Employment of a mentor can make a valuable contribution to a gifted child's progress. A case history is presented of a gifted child from the age of 3 yrs to 10.5 yrs. The program involved a mother-toddler group, early evaluation by a psychologist of an IQ of 160, acceleration into a 5-yr-old class at the age of 4 yrs, and attending a secondary school at the age of 9 yrs for science and French. At age 10.5 yrs, the child was well adjusted socially.

Stevenson, H. W. (1994). Education of gifted and talented students in China, Taiwan, and Japan. In P. O. Ross (Ed.), National excellence: A case for developing America's talent. An anthology of readings. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED372582).

This paper, commissioned for the development of the national report, "National Excellence: A Case for Developing America's Talent," analyzes the policies and practices for educating high-ability students in Japan, Taiwan, and China. It reports on studies over the past 11 years of East Asian children's academic achievement. In the first section, the report looks at governmental policies and practices concerning the education of three types of students: (1) those who display high levels of intelligence, (2) those who are talented in the arts, and (3) those who are high academic achievers. Special programs both in and out of school are described. In the second part, the report describes the characteristics of students who have participated in the authors' studies and compares their performance and personal characteristics with those of American peers. Discussion focuses on students who demonstrate high levels of cognitive ability and on students who display exceptional ability in mathematics. The paper notes that programs for gifted and talented children in East Asia are new; the majority, especially in China and Taiwan, established only during the last decade. Japan supports no programs specifically for gifted students prior to the high school level. There is a greater emphasis in East Asian cultures on effort, rather than ability.

Townsend, M. A. R., & Patrick, H. (1993). Academic and psychosocial apprehensions of teachers and teacher trainees toward the educational acceleration of gifted students. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 28(1), 29-41.

Assessed the attitudes toward acceleration for gifted children in a group of 152 primary school teachers and a group of 140 teacher trainees. Subjects completed a 22- item scale encompassing beliefs about the effects of acceleration on academic adjustment, social and emotional development, and leadership skills. Subjects were moderately positive but conservative in their views about acceleration, and expressed greater concern about the social and emotional effects than about the academic effects. It is concluded that the apprehensions of the teachers and teacher trainees, although based on well-intentioned common sense beliefs, appear unfounded in terms of recent research.

Freeman, J. (1992). Education for the gifted in a changing Europe. Roeper Review, 14(4), 198-201.

The European approach to education for the gifted is less structured than the American approach. Superficially, differentiated education for the gifted barely exists in Europe; however, there are teaching procedures and programs to help pupils. These include individual acceleration, specialist advisory teachers, national competitions and activity centers, and special schools for instruction in the arts.

George, D. (1992). Gifted education in England. Roeper Review, 14(4), 210-204.

Examines the state of gifted education in England. Data were obtained from a National Association for Gifted Children survey of 63 local education authorities. Forty two subjects said they made special provision for the gifted. Enrichment was the most popular means of provision, cited by 37 subjects. Sixteen encouraged the use of a support teacher in classes and enrichment. Eighteen encouraged acceleration and early transfer. Provisions and teacher training remain limited, however.

Gross, M. U. M. (1992). The use of radical acceleration in cases of extreme intellectual precocity. Gifted Child Quarterly, 36(2), 91-99.

This paper reviews the school histories of five extremely gifted Australian children (IQs 160-200) who had been radically accelerated. A combination of grade skipping and radical subject matter acceleration gave the children access to curricula commensurate with their abilities as well as healthier levels of social self-esteem.

Robinson, N. M. (1992). Radical acceleration in the People's Republic of China: Early entrance to university. Roeper Review, 14(4), 189-192.

Describes two early college admission programs for gifted students in the People's Republic of China. The programs are located at the University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei and at the South East University in Nanjing. The programs have provided an option in which the students find academic challenge that is a good match for their readiness, with positive results and without apparent undue negative fallout.

Sisk, D. A. (1992). Reflections and impressions on education in China. Roeper Review, 14(4), 181-185.

The purpose of the People to People Seminar in Gifted Education to the People's Republic of China were threefold: To interface with teachers, administrators, psychologists, and researchers involved in gifted education; to visit special schools and programs designed for gifted and talented children; and to have a professional and cultural exchange with educators from other countries.

Wollam, J. (1992). Equality versus excellence: The South Korean dilemma in gifted education. Roeper Review, 14(4), 212-217.

As an emerging democratic nation, South Korea has struggled to provide equal opportunities to all of its people and is only now considering that some especially capable and accelerated students may not be served by emphasizing the same curriculum and instructional strategies for all students. Current options for gifted students include grade acceleration, science high schools, music and art high schools, and the support services provided by the Korean Association for Gifted Children.

Gross, M. U. M. (1989). Not waving but drowning: The exceptionally gifted child in Australia. In S. Baily, E. Braggett, & M. Robinson (Eds.), The challenge of excellence: A vision splendid (pp. 25-36). Sydney: Australian Association for the Education of the Gifted and Talented.

This article was included in a collection of papers from the Eighth World Conference on Gifted and Talented Children.

Gross, M. U. M. (1986). Terence Tao: Radical acceleration in Australia. Gifted Child Today, 9(4), 2-11.

A case study of a profoundly gifted 11-year old in Australia recounts his early reading, his interest in mathematics, and his failure at early schooling because of inadequate school readiness. His parents are now considering when he should begin college. Comments of three gifted educators are included.